In order to write a Ph.D. thesis, we need to follow the outline discussed in this article. When we want to write a dissertation we are clearly near towards the significant stage of our education. The major point of this article is to increase one’s skills regarding research. If anyone wants to write a Ph.D. dissertation they must write a proposal first. The proposal is for the final dissertation project that enhances the interest of the person over different complex questions.
Related image
This paper is a shorter version of the dissertation but it is very important as you will get a point as well as information regarding the dissertation topic. Further one must know the problem they would solve with the help of a dissertation, what is the problem, what is the most possible and best solution to implement and solve the problem and how the research will be conducted, these all are the possible questions that a student must know before writing a dissertation on the desired topic. He must make sure that they have chosen a unique set of ideas as well as brainstorm the ideas. They do not need to end up with many questions that would make difficult for them to answer.

There are total four or five chapter in the Ph.D. thesis. Chapter one is an introduction. This chapter includes the research problem, research question, and its reasoning. The reasoning is known as a theoretical argument. It justifies the study in terms of the information in order to develop a theory to understand educational phenomena. Further, the chapter includes a general description of the areas, importance of the problem, importance of the study and practical reasons. These all are included in this chapter.

The second chapter is a literature review. In this chapter theoretical definitions of important terms are used. This chapter includes the important research conducted by the researcher. All of the operational definitions appear in this section. In this chapter, literature review includes research work by different authors on the given topic, research (where you may elaborate your topic and extract ideas as much as you can). All of the theory written here is written according to the hypothesis we have generated in the first chapter.

The third chapter is methodology chapter in which either researcher will extract data from questionnaires or with the help of interviews. This chapter is one of the most difficult chapters and gives all the details of the methodology that is used to study the topic. Sections in this chapter include much more subheadings but are not limited to those subheadings. The chapter includes instruments, participants, materials, procedures as well as analysis according to the topic of the researcher.

The chapter describes methods for the sample we will be going to study like convenience sample, simple random sample etc. This chapter also helps in discussing mishandling of data. It talks about techniques that are to be used to conduct the study including all citations. It shows evidence of reliability, validity etc. If the information is not extracted from the previous study or any researcher does not get enough information than pilot studying should be conducted.

This chapter includes all of the analysis that will be studied in detail in chapter 4. Further, if you are writing a qualitative dissertation, then the methodology chapter will include the research questions, data collection, and analysis processes. If the dissertation is quantitative then one must focus on research questions, hypothesis, population sample, a collection of data and analysis.

In chapter 4 the data is analyzed on the basis of questionnaires which are either close-ended or open-ended. Data is collected from either qualitative or quantitative data collection method. Data analysis is the restatement of the research question as well as a hypothesis. Each of the hypothesis is followed by the statistical analysis.

In the last chapter that is chapter 5, the summaries of the four chapters is stated. This chapter presents the conclusion including future recommendation over the research topic.

Some dissertations are comprised of four chapters and some are comprised of five chapters. In four chapter dissertations, the introduction is not included and the dissertation starts from the chapter two that is a literature review and this chapter is marked as chapter one in the dissertation. All of the Ph.D.students follow these outlines in order to make their dissertation perfect and without any grammatical errors.